Книги по психологии

Периодика - Психологічні перспективи

УДК 37.015.3 J. Andrzejewska, I. Zwierzchowska

The arctile deals with aspects of nursery school teachers’ training in the time of education reforming. Special attention is paid to changes in university curricula, main goals of education.

Key words: nursery school teacher, education program, quality of education.

Анджеєвська Й., Звіржховска І. Педагогічні дослідження в добу освіт­ніх реформ. У статті досліджуються аспекти навчання вихователів дошкільних закладів в умовах реформування освіти. Особлива увага приділена змінам в університетських навчальних планах, головним цілям освіти.

Ключові слова: вихователь дошкільного закладу, освітня програма, якість навчання.

Анджеевска И., Звиржховска И. Педагогические исследования во вре­мя образовательных реформ. В статье исследуются аспекты обучения воспитателей дошкольных учреждений. Особенное внимание уделено измене­ниям в университетских учебных планах, главным целям образования.

Ключевые слова: воспитатель дошкольного учреждения, образовательная программа, качество обучения.

Introduction. Due to currently introduced changes to education system such as primary school education of six year olds and wide-sprea­ding education of five year olds [6] and as it is proved in research [2-4], also undestanding great value of pre-school eduation which conditions further school and life success, the need of professional preparation of early child education teachers grew enormously in order to meet pupil’s needs in new social, economical and civilizational conditions. This is why further advancement of pre-school and early educating teachers is now priority task of eduction system in Poland and determines educational challenge on academic level.

Organization and programme reform of Polish education induced authors to take closer look at academic training of future teachers‘. Article is concentrated on chosen aspects of preliminary preparation or pre-school and early school teachers. In particular it submits to consideration:

- aim of preliminary preparation;

- organization of studies;

- academic training changes;

- university education programme.

Aim of preliminary preparation. Future teachers‘ preparation in course of academic training must meet determinants of modern world and needs to be closely related to carried through changes to Polish education.

Teacher organizes material world of child surroudings nowadays. One creates learning process based on individual exploration of the world by a child. Teacher is a leader to a world of information “a key to interpretation of meanings” of suggested values. As teacher is intermediary between child and outer world thou one may not be detached from everyday life problems and social challenges of the region [1]. Pre-school and school teacher is subject of identification and imitation. This imposes on him or her need of possessing of strong moral sceleton. Teacher is eventually a transmitter of series of principles of orders and freedom. One is creator of working climate [6].

Preparation of future teacher is expected to serve child and parents. This is why student must answer the questions:

Whom am I going to work with? What is the developmental nd individual stadium of my pupil?

What rules, methods and and forms of work should I employ when

Organizing education process of a child?

What type of diagnosis shall I use, plan didactic work, nurture work and pedagogical therapy of a child?

What constitutes educational programme ofpre-school and school?

How should I assess development of child and didactic and nurture process of pre-school and school?

What competences and professional skills do I need to work with a child?

What will be my professional and individual evolution?

Organization of studies. Education of teachers of pre-school and primary school grades I to III in Poland is conducted at the university level. Teachers are prepared to work in profession by universities, colle­ges, teacher councils afiliated by colleges which coordinate academical and didactic programmes.

Teacher’s qualifications shall be obtained in course of three year long bachelor degree studies, two year long master degree supplementary studies, five year long master degree homogeneous studies and post­diploma studies.

In accordance to set studies standards [5] college professional studies of tutorial specialization are conducted within two specialties (general and supplementary). Supplementary master degree studies and homogeneous master degree studies are conducted within one (general) tutorial specialty or two tutorial specialties (general and supplementary). The selection of supplementary specialty is determined by tutorial specialties lectured by particular college.

The training system of early education teachers determines parallel model is based on simultaneous achievement of general (academic) know­ledge and development of professional (pedagogic) skills. The graduate of bachelor degree studies should acquire as well general pedagogical erudi­tion, psychological and sociological necessary to comprehend educational realities as practical competence in workshop methodology of future profession.

Completion of bachelor degree studies entitles graduate to continue education in course of supplementary master degree studies. These studies provide interdiscipinary theoretical knowledge oriented on specialty of pre-school education or early school education. They offer base for scienti­fic research, solutions of theoretical and practical problems. Master degree graduate will be prepared for further selfeducation and selfdevelopment and gets possibiity to continue doctorate degree studies.

Changes to academic education. It is necessary to prepare graduates of pre-school and early school education tutorial studies to cope with new social and cultural challenges. In particular facing pauperization of society and deepening problem of unequality and uneven education chances of children from disfavoured and excluded socialy groups. He or she should acquire complex knowledge in pedagogics and psychology necessary to complete educational, protective, didactic and organizational tasks of pre­school and primary school. New teacher should be ready to support harmo­nious development of child coming from various social environments, to stimulate individual process of education and being able to use activating methods of working with a child. Teacher must be able to satisfy particular educational needs of a child in cooperation with other teachers, parents and loacl society. The guiding rules of Ministry of Education related to education reform impose on teachers requirement to know multistage diagnosis of a child and management in case of need complex therapy. Implementing of new programme base and further more new programmes of pre-school and early school education requires from teacher skills of multivariant analysis of educational substances and competences to carry these into effect.

The need for teachers‘ training formula causes pedagogical colleges to undertake certain steps in order to:

- Ajustment of academic programmes to current job market situation, social needs related to education reforms at level of early education and economy based on knowledge by:

- Modernization of teaching contents;

- Students conduct education projects enriched with knowledge from psychology, diagnosis, work with child with special educational needs, legal basis and education organization;

- Work with information platform;

- Conducting clases online and in English;

- Using multimedia education packages in didactic process.

- Preparation future teachers for modern classes in pre-school and school.

- To enhance competences of tutorial methodics and didactics of work with a child.

- Acquiring professional experience by students in course of peda­gogical apprenticeship.

- Enhancement of knowledge and skills of students in use of infor­mation technologies.

- Perfecting teacher’s skills in foreign languages.

- Perfecting students abilities of activation of local societies institutions and integration of their actions for a child.

Main aims of education in course of pedagogical studies are:

- acquiring qualifications to undertake jos of teacher of pre-school and primary schools grades I-III;

- acquiring and arrangement of knowledge about correct child deve­lopment, child’s needs and problems, enabling development and learning diagnosis;

- learning methods and techniques of education work with children at pre-school and primary school age;

- teaching, develpoment and perfection of practical skills of self­dependent planning and conduction didactic and tutorial work with a child, organization of education environment supporting indivi­dual process of child’s development;

- preparation to use modern information technologies;

- acquiring skill of proficient use of foreign language;

- acquiring thorough pedagogical knowledge, psycholigical and social which makes base for self-perfection and further education.

Studies programme. In course of studies students acquire wide knowledge in the fields of pedagogics, psychology and sociology necessary to understand social and cultural context of education and future work and designing self-development. Students in course of particular faculties learn teoretical and methodical basis of pre-scholl and primary school pedagogics, they acquire knowledge in domain of planning and organizing education process in pre-school and primary school, in range of methodics and specific education, they acquire skills in diagnosis of child’s competences and supporting child’s development.

Students verify theoretical knowledge and enrich it in course of professions apprenticeship which take place in real life pre-schools and primary schools grades I-III.

Students acquire also - in accordance to modern education market demands - skills in proficient use of foreign language and in use of modern information technologies.

Thanks to interpersonal communication lessons, self-presentation and initiative future teachers aquire skills necessary to efficient entrance to job market.

It is assumed that graduate of child early education studies should be ready to undertake complex tasks in area of care, education and didactics in pre-schools and primary schools. In relation to this he or she should be prepared for:

- competent way transfer acquired knowledge in the area of chosen teaching specialties, self-perfection and integrate it with other sciences;

- pedagogics and psychology and fulfil education and care functions, supporting multidiscyplinary pupil development, personalization of education process, satisfy particular educational needs of pupils, organize social life on pre-school group level, primary school classroom and local society, cooperation with other teachers, parents and local society;

- didactics, to efficiently conduct classes, to stimulate interests and support intelectual development of pupils by skilled set up of activating methods, teaching technics and didactic technics, but also research and assess pupils achievements and own practice;

- use of information technologies and employing it in course of classes;

- proficiency in foreign language.

Graduate of pedagogical faculty should above that be ready for:

- cooperation with pupils, teachers, parents and local society in order to proceed with educational tasks;

- undertaking educational tasks going beyond subject of classes and task of out school education;

- self-creation and verification of own projects and undertaking actions to spread model of good educaton practice;

- managing proffessional and individual self-development and under­taking self-perfection also with cooperation with other teachers;

- use of legal regulation in relation to education system and pro­fessional status of teachers [4].

Current education reform supports academical society to include into programme of pre-school and primary school education new subjects such as child diagnosis, education environment, diagnosis of child with difficulties, base and correctional work programme in pre-school, methods and forms of prophylaxis and therapy in pre-school, therapy of a child with speech troubles and dislectic child, therapeutic work with children with other learning difficulties. The contants of health education has been extended. Developmental disorders profilactics of motorics has been added.

Closure. Pre-school and primary school teachers are part of society which is challenged with high expectances. Teachers construct with pupils knowledge, train skills and habits but also show children how to live. They create changes to pupils personality, co-create social and cultural system and effects of their work show after years.

Studies in pedagogics of pre-school and primary school prepare specialists but also modern and independent, creative people who are to work in Polish and European pre-schools and primary schools.

In an upcoming time it is necessary topay closer attention to spiritual side of students, to encourage them to lean over their lifes, professional ethics, to awaken their sensitivity to beauty and another human. Pedgo - gical studies should in greater degree than before descover and show future teachers various cultures.


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